Guiding Questions


(Compiled by Julia Hanley, Christine Lanphere, Carol Meyer, Cherice Montgomery, & Nancy Oakes)

1) How can we attract/recruit talented people with diverse backgrounds to teaching?

2) How might we differentiate instruction within teacher preparation programs to better meet the needs of diverse candidates and circumstances?

3) How might teacher preparation programs better facilitate the preparation of elementary language teachers?

4) What kind of support structures - personnel and implementation - should be in place to provide coherent teacher preparation experiences?

5) How do we develop teachers who are able thinkers within their own learning and in their teaching?

6) How might we help teacher-candidates develop instructional design skills and the flexibility to use them to improvise in elementary and middle school world language classrooms?

7) How do we establish effective induction programs that will help retain and support effective teachers and how can technology be used to enhance these induction programs?


Key Concepts


(Compiled by Julia Hanley, Christine Lanphere, Carol Meyer, Cherice Montgomery, & Nancy Oakes)

Communication: Building relationships, Collaboration, Effective Communication, Feedback

Cultures: Developing Lifelong Learners (Foreign Language Teachers as Models for Students); Language, Cultural, and Inter-Cultural Proficiency; Nurturing Flexibility; Teachers as Thinkers; Transformation

Connections: Curriculum Development, Induction Programs for New Teachers, Instructional Strategies

Comparisons: Reflection, Self-assessment

Communities: Mentoring, Participating in Professional Communities, Partnerships




Guiding Principles


(Compiled by Julia Hanley, Christine Lanphere, Carol Meyer, & Nancy Oakes)

1) Those who work to prepare new teachers need to understand 5 basic principles:

  • Learning to teach requires meaningful engagement, careful reflection, critical thought, and fruitful partnerships among preservice teachers, cooperating teachers, and college supervisors.
  • Preservice teachers, cooperating teachers, and college supervisors all play crucial and unique roles, as they function in different contexts.
  • Roles and contexts may be different, but all parties involved in learning to teach engage in career-long professional growth and a desire for excellence in the profession.
  • Excellence in the profession is exemplified by teachers who design and implement compelling experiences that result in transformation.
  • Transformation is the goal of learning.

2) Teacher candidates need to understand five basic principles to be great teachers:

  • Learning is relational and situated;
  • Language and culture are inextricably bound together;
  • Instructional design is central;
  • Meaning is made, not given, and information is necessary to make meaning;
  • Students have to demonstrate their understanding

3) Collaboration among school systems, administrators, university personnel, teaching professionals in the field is needed to develop and maintain excellent teachers. This is a community effort and not the work of the beginning teacher and cooperating teacher alone.

4) Good feedback always balances “commendation” and “recommendation”.








Teacher Preparation Resources


Classroom Management


Albert.jpg Albert, Linda. (2003). Cooperative discipline (2nd ed.).Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service, Inc. ISBN 0-7854-3363-5.

This teacher-friendly book explains that misbehavior is a response to unmet needs, discusses the goals and characteristics of misbehavior, offers principles of prevention, suggests a host of practical strategies for effective intervention, outlines ways to avoid and defuse major conflicts and confrontations, describes ways to help students feel capable and connected, offers ideas for creating a classroom code of conduct, and explores other ways to involve students, parents, and the school community as partners. Image source: http://www.agsglobe.com/group.asp?nGroupInfoID=a4070 (Contributed by - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg)

Assist - An online toolkit of resources and materials designed to assist beginning teachers in organizing and managing their classrooms, their work in schools, and their professional development. chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Emmer.jpg Emmer, Edmund T., Evertson, Carolyn M., & Worsham, Murray E. (2006). Classroom management for middle and high school teachers (7th ed.). NY: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-45534-4.

This useful book outlines the key processes necessary for establishing an effective learning environment. It treats topics such as classroom organization, establishing rules and procedures, managing student work, planning for the beginning of the year, planning and conducting instruction, managing transitions and cooperative learning, developing communication skills, handling problem behavior, and managing special groups. The book is particularly well-suited to beginning teachers and contains a variety of extremely helpful charts, checklists, rubrics, and self-assessment scales. Image source: http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/Bookshop/detail.asp?item=100000000102984 (Contributed by - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg)

Establishing a Climate for Learning - This issue of the Alumni Connection Newsletter from the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center contains a wealth of links to practical resources and materials to assist beginning teachers with classroom management issues.


wong.gif Wong, Harry K., & Wong, Rosemary T. (2004). How to be an effective teacher the first days of school. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-9629360-6-5.

This book is designed to support 1st year teachers in establishing positive expectations, managing student behavior, motivating students, and presenting themselves professionally. It will be most helpful if read prior to the first 2 weeks of the 1st year of teaching. Image source: http://btobsearch.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?btob=Y&endeca=1&isbn=0962936065
(Contributed by - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg)



Curriculum & Program Development


ACTFL. (n.d.). Characteristics of effective elementary school foreign language programs. ACTFL. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3655 - A nicely-organized, annotated summary of key characteristics of effective FL programs at the elementary level. - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Branaman, Lucinda, Rhodes, Nancy, & Holmes, Annette. (1999). National directory of early foreign language programs. CAL. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.cal.org/resources/immersion/Default.aspx - This searchable database of immersion programs allows users to search by state, program model, grade level. If you click on each link, you can see more information about what type of immersion program (total, partial, 2-way) is offered, how many students are served and at what grade levels, when the program began, the URL of the school's website, and additional contact information. - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Crandall, JoAnn. (1994, January). Content-centered language instruction. Washington, DC: Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED367142) Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.ericdigests.org/1994/content.htm - This ERIC digest addresses issues of curricular content and program development models intersect. - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Curtain.gif Curtain, Helena, & Dahlberg, Carol Ann. (2004). Languages and children, making the match: New languages for young learners, grades K-8 (3rd ed.). NY: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-46371-1.

The last 5 chapters of this book are devoted to planning and sustaining effective foreign language programs and address issues such as making the case for initiating an elementary foreign language program, public relations and advocacy, selecting a program model, staffing a program, planning, assessment, articulation, and immersion. The book also contains a wealth of practical instructional resources, including ideas for assignments, literacy development, and standards-based games and activities; information on thematic planning, assessment, and classroom management; instructional strategies, templates, and sample student work. Image source: http://phcatalog.pearson.com/program_single.cfm?site_id=6&discipline_id=813&subarea_id=1323&program_id=12541 chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Supporting Our Students - This issue of the Alumni Connection Newsletter from the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center contains a wealth of links to practical resources and materials. - chericem1 chericem1

WigginsMcTighe.jpgWiggins, Grant, & Jay McTighe. (1998). Understanding by design (Expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. ISBN 1-4166-0035-3.

This book is particularly useful in supporting teachers in creating meaningful standards-based, thematic units. It explores what it means to understand, outlines how to identify key concepts, generate essential questions, design effective assessments and rubrics, plan lessons with clear performance targets, and teach for understanding. It also contains a wealth of anecdotes, examples, and templates that would be helpful to beginning or experienced teachers, course instructors, and professional developers. Image source:
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1416600353/104-0595909-7101515?v=glance&n=283155 (Contributed by - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg)



Foreign Language Pedagogy


Curtain.gif Curtain, Helena, & Dahlberg, Carol Ann. (2004). Languages and children, making the match: New languages for young learners, grades K-8 (3rd ed.). NY: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-46371-1.

The last 5 chapters of this book are devoted to planning and sustaining effective foreign language programs and address issues such as making the case for initiating an elementary foreign language program, public relations and advocacy, selecting a program model, staffing a program, planning, assessment, articulation, and immersion. The book also contains a wealth of practical instructional resources, including ideas for assignments, literacy development, and standards-based games and activities; information on thematic planning, assessment, and classroom management; instructional strategies, templates, and sample student work. Image source: http://phcatalog.pearson.com/program_single.cfm?site_id=6&discipline_id=813&subarea_id=1323&program_id=12541 chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg


Morain, Genelle. (1990). Preparing foreign language teachers: Problems & possibilities. ADFL Bulletin, 21 (2), pp. 21-24. http://www.mla.org/adfl/bulletin/V21N2/212020.htm Outlines persistent divides in perspectives related to the preparation of FL teachers.


ShrumGlisan.gif Shrum, Judith L., & Glisa, Eileen W. (2005). Teacher's handbook: Contextualized language instruction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle. ISBN 1-4130-0462-8.

This book covers topics such as:
  • The Architecture of the Foreign Language Profession
  • NCATE Standards
  • Contextualized Input, Output, and Interaction
  • The National Standards for Foreign Language Learning
  • Organizing Content and Planning for Integrated Language Instruction (in Elementary, Middle, and High School)
  • Developing Interpersonal, Interpretive, and Presentational Communication Skills
  • Using a Story-based Approach to Teach Grammar
  • Addressing Diverse Needs of Learners
  • Assessing Standards-based Language Performance
  • Using Technology to Contextualize and Integrate Language Instruction

It is a helpful, research-based guide for methods instructors and their students. Image source: http://www.heinle.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&discipline_number=303&product_isbn_issn=1413004628 chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg



National Standards


ACTFL et al. (1999). Standards for foreign language learning in the 21st century.NY: National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. ISBN 0-935868-85-2.

This explains the rationale behind the development of the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning, outlines each of the 5 Cs, offers learning scenarios to help teachers envision how they might be used to guide classroom instruction, and provides language-specific standards as well. chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg



Reflective Teaching


Udall, Anne J., & Joan E. Daniels. (1991). Creating the thoughtful classroom: Strategies to promote student thinking.Tuscon, AZ: Zephyr Press. ISBN0-913705-62-4.

This fantastic book uses metaphors and analogies to examine the importance of infusing content with opportunities to develop and apply critical thinking skills. It addresses creating a classroom environment that supports thinking; planning a complex-level thinking lesson; restructuring content (including textbook material) to better support critical thinking activities; and teacher and student strategies that can be used to develop, strengthen, and refine critical thinking in the classroom. It offers ideas for collaborating with students to create a climate of inquiry in the classroom, and includes a number of assessment and observation forms for both teachers and students that can be used to support and evaluate the success of the implementation of those strategies in the classroom. chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg



More Teacher Preparation Resources


Can You Be a Bridge to the Future? - This link will take you to an issue of the electronic newsletter from the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center with links to information and materials on teacher preparation. - chericem1 chericem1

Mentoring, Leadership, & Change 2006: Teacher Preparation - This link will take you to the work of the Teacher Preparation Group from the MLC 2006 Summer Institute. - chericem1 chericem1



Technological Tools for Supporting Teacher Preparation


Audacity – Phenomenal, free software you can download and use just like a tape-recorder. Use it to record student language samples that teacher candidates can learn to analyze, to familiarize students with key voices in the field by capturing quotations from leaders in the profession, to have teacher-candidates and their students create listening activities, pronunciation models, or pre-recorded stories. You can also use it to edit, layer, or remove background noise from audio tracks. Save the files as MP3s that can be exported to iPods! http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ - chericem1 chericem1

Blogger - Use a variety of pre-made templates to create your own blogs that support the uploading of media-based content for free. Blogs are a great way to encourage teacher-candidates to critically reflect on their own practice and to become more skilled instructional decision-makers as they analyze and reflect on the practice of colleagues they have observed. A class blog can also nurture professional networking that provides both short- and long-term support to teacher-candidates who are involved in field experiences, student teaching, or their first year of teaching. http://www.blogger.com - chericem1 chericem1

Brochure Creator - Have teacher-candidates design brochures and flyers (to educate the community about the benefits of language learning, to publicize student and program successes, etc.) by selecting themes and templates, editing the text, adding their own images, and printing. http://www.mybrochuremaker.com/brochure-creator-fun.html - chericem1 chericem1

BubblePLY - Allows you to add speech and thought bubbles to any online video, which means that you can now add your own layer of commentary to existing videos of classroom practice. It is even more effective to ask teacher-candidates to annotate videos of classroom practice by noting their observations directly on the video with this tool, and then discussing them in small groups or as a whole class. http://www.bubbleply.com/default.aspx - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Bubbl.us - Easy-to-use, online, colorful graphic organizer that is shareable. Great for conducting brainstorming sessions, developing lesson or unit plans, mapping curriculum, r having teacher-candidates represent their mental models of particular elements of early language learning at multiple times through the year so they can compare maps and see how their understanding has grown.. http://www.bubbl.us/ - chericem1 chericem1

ClassTools - Provides flash-based templates for the creation of graphic organizers, puzzles, and worksheets. Have teacher-candidates use them to prepare materials for the classes they are teaching. http://www.classtools.net/ - chericem1 chericem1

Cmap - Free, online collaborative concept mapping. Useful for brainstorming, curriculum mapping, helping teacher-candidates to see the "big picture," organizing large projects, and planning events with large groups of people. Working groups can attach documents to individual bubbles, making it an especially valuable tool for tasks like mapping curriculum or planning interdisciplinary projects. - chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Comeeko - Free, well-designed software that lets your or teacher-candidates create your own comic strips (using photos or images) and save them for others to view. A great tool for engaging teacher-candidates in thinking about and communicating their philosophical beliefs about key issues in language teaching and learning. http://www.comeeko.com - chericem1 chericem1

Create Your Scenario - Darling tool that lets you select characters, type lines for each one, save the work, and generate a playscript. Teacher-candidates can use this tool to create simple playscripts for their elementary students to perform in the target language. http://www.kids-space.org/HPT/1a/11a.html - chericem1 chericem1

De.licio.us - This free social bookmarking site allows you to create, organize, and share an annotated list of online bookmarks to your favorite resources and materials for elementary language learning. This would be a great way to collaboratively build a quality database of information and teaching materials with beginning teachers and their university instructors. chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Google Reader - After creating a free account, you can have teacher-candidates can use this service to "subscribe" (easily and for free) to blogs and webpages using RSS technology. This is an easy way to have information regarding key issues in the profession conveniently funneled directly to them and will help them to begin to get a sense of the depth, breadth, scope, and important issues and controversies in the profession. http://www.google.com/reader - chericem1 chericem1

Google Scholar – This search engine returns only scholarly articles and books, tells you how many people have cited them, and links you to related articles. Great for gathering research-based information that will help you to make informed decisions about the structure, content, and possibilities for innovation in teacher preparation programs. http://scholar.google.com - chericem1 chericem1

FDs Flickr Toys - Some FUN things you can do to Flickr photos (such as create CD covers, magazine covers, mosaics, trading cards, etc.) that would make super assignments. http://bighugelabs.com/flickr/

FoxIt - Free PDF reader that allows users to annotate PDFs via highlighting, text, or drawing tools, to fill out forms and save them, to view PDFs as text, etc. Also has a multi-language interface, self-upgrade, on-demand download, and javascript support. A nice tool that allows teacher candidates to read scholarly articles with a minimum of fuss. - chericem1 chericem1

Generator Blog - A fantastic blog that contains links to all sorts of free, interesting generators (such as cereal boxes, insurance cards, money, etc.) that would be great tools for students to use in creating creative advertising campaigns. - chericem1 chericem1

Giveaway of the Day - Fully functional, commercial software and tools that can be downloaded for free (one item each day with restricted licenses). Read the "About" section for more information. RSS feed and e-mail subscription notifications available. An easy way for new teachers on limited budgets to acquire useful software. http://www.giveawayoftheday.com/ - chericem1 chericem1

Go2Web2.0 Directory - A handy directory of Web 2.0 services that can be used to facilitate teacher preparation. - chericem1 chericem1

Google Alerts – Lets you have Google notify you via an e-mail message when anything is posted on the web on the topic of your choice. Good for encouraging teacher candidates to become more aware of important developments in the profession. http://www.google.com/alerts/ - chericem1 chericem1

Google Docs - Free, online spreadsheet and word processor like Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word that lets multiple users on different computers edit a document simultaneously and save it online. Great for collaborative authoring among various group members. Combine this with Skype for voice features too! http://docs.google.com - chericem1 chericem1

Google Notebook – Lets you copy snippets from online articles, or create your own running notebook on the topics of your choice online. The notebooks can be kept private or shared, making them a great place for teacher candidates to take notes, keep track of sources, and know where their peers have already looked. http://www.google.com/gn - chericem1 chericem1

Google Reader - After creating a free account, teacher candidates can use this service to keep track of the webpages to which they have "subscribed" (for free and very easily) using RSS technology. This is a great way to help them begin to stay professionally up-to-date. They can also "subscribe" to one anothers' blogs and easily keep track of who has posted new content. http://www.google.com/reader - chericem1 chericem1

Google Scholar – Returns only scholarly articles and books, tells you how many people have cited them, and links you to related articles. A useful tool for encouraging teacher candidates to seek answers to problems in research-based literature. http://scholar.google.com - chericem1 chericem1

Jumpcut - Allows you to edit digital video for free online. Great for students who don't have access to anything but the internet at home! An easy way for teacher candidates to document and analyze their classroom practice. http://www.jumpcut.com - chericem1 chericem1

Keep Toolkit - A free, online project planning template that allows students to input images, text, and video into different "boxes" to create a shareable "project portfolio." An easy way for teacher candidates to document and analyze their classroom practice. http://www.cfkeep.org - chericem1 chericem1

Media Convert - A free, slick little online tool that will let you identify a media file on your desktop or at a particular URL and convert it to the format of your choice simply by filling in a simple form. No registration required. A very useful tool for instructors and teacher candidates alike. http://media-convert.com/convert/ - chericem1 chericem1

Meeting Wizard - A free, online tool that allows you to negotiate a date for an event, send out invitations, collect responses, and send reminders . . . all automatically! Very useful for arranging class meetings and special events. - chericem1 chericem1

Motivator - Create your own motivational posters for free with a digital photo and a few clicks. Download them, e-mail them, print them, or upload them to Flickr. You can also order print copies. A great way to provide unexpected encouragement to teacher candidates. http://bighugelabs.com/flickr/motivator.php - chericem1 chericem1

Pandora - Type in your favorite artists and Pandora will create "stations" of streaming music that is similar to the work of the artists you have selected, based on research from the Music Genome Project. You can create up to 100 stations for free (registration required)! Particularly useful for widening teacher candidates' musical repertoires when it comes to artists from the target culture(s). http://www.pandora.com - chericem1 chericem1

Protopage - Ever wonder what a Web 2.0 webpage will look like? Well, here's the answer! Register for free to get your own page, then customize the content by clicking on any of the tabs and altering their contents. Make as much as you like public or private. Like someone else's content? Simply click import and watch it all get added to your page! An easy way to organize and store online resources and materials for teacher candidates. - chericem1 chericem1

Quintura - A very cool search engine that returns the results visually. Mouse over one of the tag words to see additional layers of results. Useful for helping teacher candidates to get a quick overview of important concepts in the field. http://www.quintura.com See the new site for kids here: http://kids.quintura.com/ - chericem1 chericem1

Scrapblog - Combines the purposes and multimedia features of blogging with the visual affordances of scrapbooking. Comes with built-in templates and can accommodate music and video too. A super tool for encouraging teacher candidates to document and reflect on their experiences and practice. http://www.scrapblog.com - chericem1 chericem1

Slide.com - Use premade themes to create slideshows from your photos that you can embed in your blog or website. A great way to share class photos. http://www.slide.com - chericem1 chericem1

Skype – Free software that allows you to talk to anyone in the world (up to 4 people at once) through your computer for free with a cheap headset mic (like the telemarketers wear) as long as the other person also has the software. Great for group conversations about projects, meeting with parents who can't leave the office to come to school, etc. You can also call landlines or cell phones, but there is a charge for that http://www.skype.com - chericem1 chericem1

The Amazing You Tube Tools Collection - A collection of tools to help those interested in using/publishing materials to You Tube. - chericem1 chericem1

Tubes - Allows users to drag and drop content (audio files, bookmarks, documents, e-mail contact lists, spreadsheets, videos) into a "tube" that can then be accessed by all those who have been invited to share it. Invitees can also upload content to the tube, making project collaboration easier. The latest versions of content in the tube synch up when the user is online. Click on the Download link to see a 30-second demo. - chericem1 chericem1

Webnote Wiki - Allows users to collaboratively take color-coded notes in a space they create and organize them graphically. People can subscribe to your RSS feed. - chericem1 chericem1

Wikispaces - Allows you to set up collaborative work spaces where multiple people can collaborate. Allows uploading of documents, files, images, and multimedia in addition to basic text, and includes discussion boards for every page, editing histories, revert options, RSS subscriptions, and the ability to review recent changes. A fantastic way to manage course content, facilitate professional community building, and involve teacher candidates, field instructors, mentor teachers, course instructors, and program personnel in program articulation efforts. http://www.wikispaces.com - chericem1 chericem1

Yugma - Free Web 2.0 videoconferencing software that makes it easy to present to up to ten people over long distances for free. A great way to allow teacher candidates who cannot get to campus due to inclement weather to participate in class. (Read more about Tim Lauer's experiences with it here: http://edu.blogs.com/edublogs/2007/02/yugma_free_web_.html) https://www.yugma.com/index.php - chericem1 chericem1