Key Concepts

(Compiled by Greg Barfield, Steve Brock, Elena Farkas, & Rosanne Zeppieri)

  • Communication in the international marketplace
  • Collaboration between school and community
  • High quality learning materials
  • Living in a multiethnic society
  • National security
  • Realistic objectives

Guiding Principles

(Compiled by Greg Barfield, Steve Brock, Elena Farkas, Cherice Montgomery, & Rosanne Zeppieri)

5 Key Principles For Creating a Successful Program:

1.Collaboration with communities, teachers and parents explores the need of an expanded language curriculum.

2.Curriculum thematically organized, sequential, integrated and standards-based informs content-related/based materials.

3.Materials (a collection of developmentally appropriate, authentic and varied resources) reflect the target culture.

4.Culture embedded in instruction, providing a focus on products, practices and perspectives fosters compelling experiences.

5. Compelling experiences through a sustained sequence of language instruction implemented by highly qualified teachers and supported by school and university necessitate collaboration.

Important Considerations

(Compiled by Greg Barfield, Steve Brock, Elena Farkas, & Rosanne Zeppieri)

1) Presently in the U.S., less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) consist of approximately thirty of eighty non-North American Languages.

2) Though LCTLs can be primarily found at the university level, their difficulty makes it almost impossible for students to reach a function level based on those classes alone.

3) After the events of 9/11/01 LCTLs are receiving more attention from the federal government, as seen in both FLAP and the new language initiative.

4) As the federal government funds LCTLs, the priority of various LCTLs is flexible.

5) Teachers of LCTL’s find both training and materials lacking.

6) Certification concerns at the K-12 level pose problems for districts looking to include LCTLs.

Resources for Program Development

ACTFL. (n.d.). Characteristics of effective elementary school foreign language programs. ACTFL. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from - A nicely-organized, annotated summary of key characteristics of effective FL programs at the elementary level. - chericem1 chericem1

Branaman, Lucinda, Rhodes, Nancy, & Holmes, Annette. (1999). National directory of early foreign language programs. CAL. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from - This searchable database of immersion programs allows users to search by state, program model, grade level. If you click on each link, you can see more information about what type of immersion program (total, partial, 2-way) is offered, how many students are served and at what grade levels, when the program began, the URL of the school's website, and additional contact information. - chericem1 chericem1

CARLA. (n.d.). Resources for language immersion education. Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from - This annotated list of resources provided by the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition will connect you with an international list of professional listservs, organizations, and materials designed especially for language immersion teachers and parents of children in such programs. - chericem1 chericem1

Crandall, JoAnn. (1994, January). Content-centered language instruction. Washington, DC: Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED367142) Retrieved May 26, 2006, from - This ERIC digest addresses issues of curricular content and program development models intersect. - chericem1 chericem1

Curtain.gif Curtain, Helena, & Dahlberg, Carol Ann. (2004). Languages and children, making the match: New languages for young learners, grades K-8 (3rd ed.). NY: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-46371-1. - The last 5 chapters of this book are devoted to planning and sustaining effective foreign language programs and address issues such as making the case for initiating an elementary foreign language program, public relations and advocacy, selecting a program model, staffing a program, planning, assessment, articulation, and immersion. The book also contains a wealth of practical instructional resources, including ideas for assignments, literacy development, and standards-based games and activities; information on thematic planning, assessment, and classroom management; instructional strategies, templates, and sample student work. Image source: - chericem1 chericem1

Curtain, Helena, & Dahlberg, Carol Ann. (2000). Planning for success: Common pitfalls in the planning of early foreign language programs. CAL Digest, December, EDO-FL-00-11. Retrieved 20 June 2006 from - Article discusses a number of common problems with beginning early language programs, including the neglect of LCTs. (Submitted by Steve Brock).

Janus, Louis (1998). Less commonly taught languages of emerging Importance: Major issues, cost problems, and their national implications. UCLA International Institute. Retrieved 20 June 2006, from - Conference paper provides a framework for understanding LCTs before the recent federal government impetus on their behalf. (Submitted by Steve Brock)

Morrison, Sally. Less Commonly Taught Languages. ACTFL// Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved June 18, 2006, from - This annoted list of resources comprises articles, websites, institutes, and professional journals dealing with less commonly taught languages.

National Council of Less Commonly Taught Languages (n.d.). Retrieved 20 June 2006, from - This site addresses issues relating to LCTs, including objectives and their annual conference. (Submitted by Steve Brock)

Rosenbusch, Marcia. (1995, June). Guidelines for starting an elementary school foreign language program. ACTFL. Washington, DC: Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from - A brief summary of things to consider in developing an elementary foreign language program, including cautions in program planning, the planning process, components of program design, characteristics of programs that lead to fluency, and ways to determine program feasibility. - chericem1 chericem1

Other Program Development Resources

Mentoring, Leadership, & Change 2006: Program Development - This link will take you to the work of the Community Outreach Group from the MLC 2006 Summer Institute.

Technological Tools for Supporting Program Development

Blogger - Use a variety of pre-made templates to create your own blogs that support the uploading of media-based content for free. A collaborative blog with multiple authors can be a powerful opportunity for busy teachers to engage in conversations about curriculum development, program articulation, and problem-solving in ways that strengthen relationships and facilitate progress toward program goals. - chericem1 chericem1 - Easy-to-use, online, colorful graphic organizer that is shareable. Great for conducting brainstorming sessions, determining the best use of program resources, or mapping curriculum. - chericem1 chericem1

Cmap - Free, online collaborative concept mapping. Useful for creating curriculum maps because handouts, PowerPoint slides, and other resources and materials related to each element on the map can be attached directly to the bubbles on the map--facilitating articulation. chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg - This free social bookmarking site allows you to create, organize, and share an annotated list of online bookmarks to your favorite websites with colleagues. Colleagues can also save links to your account for you to look at later. This is a great way to collaboratively create a bank of resources that can be categorized by different grade levels, languages, units, etc., and used collectively to improve program articulation.- chericem1 external image chericem1-sm.jpg

Google Reader - After creating a free account, teacher-leaders can use this service to keep track of the blogs and webpages to which they have "subscribed" (for free and very easily) using RSS technology. This is a great way for you to stay current with how colleagues in other places are approaching issues of program development and articulation. - chericem1 chericem1

Google Scholar – This search engine returns only scholarly articles and books, tells you how many people have cited them, and links you to related articles. Great for gathering research-based information about factors related to program development and articulation. - chericem1 chericem1


Dumpr - This free online suite of tools allows you to edit your Flickr photos in order to turn them into coloring book images (VERY COOL), make them look old, turn them into globes, or add reflections. You can then save them to your Flickr account. (Still in beta)

Evite - This site allows you to design custom invitations for various kinds of events, draft a guest list, send the invitations, and track the responses automatically. You can choose from pre-made themes and templates, or create your own.

FDs Flickr Toys - Some FUN things you can do to Flickr photos (such as create CD covers, magazine covers, mosaics, trading cards, etc.) that would make super assignments.

Flickr - Allows you to create libraries of images that you can share with others and is a particularly good place to "store" a shared collection of photos for a group.

FoxIt - Free PDF reader that allows users to annotate PDFs via highlighting, text, or drawing tools, to fill out forms and save them, to view PDFs as text, etc. Also has a multi-language interface, self-upgrade, on-demand download, and javascript support.

Generator Blog - A fantastic blog that contains links to all sorts of free, interesting generators (such as cereal boxes, insurance cards, money, etc.) that would be great tools for students to use in creating creative advertising campaigns

Giveaway of the Day - Fully functional, commercial software and tools that can be downloaded for free (one item each day with restricted licenses). Read the "About" section for more information. RSS feed and e-mail subscription notifications available.

Gliffy - An online application that allows you to create diagrams and share them with others.

Go2Web2.0 Directory - A handy directory of Web 2.0 services

Google Alerts – Lets you have Google notify you via an e-mail message when anything is posted on the web on the topic of your choice

Google Books – Lets you search the full text of lots of different books

Google Docs - Free, online spreadsheet and word processor like Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word that lets multiple users on different computers edit a document simultaneously and save it online. Great for collaborative authoring among various group members. Combine this with Skype for voice features too!

Google Notebook – Lets you copy snippets from online articles, or create your own running notebook on the topics of your choice online. The notebooks can be kept private or shared, making them a great place for students to take notes, keep track of sources, and know where their peers have already looked.

Google Reader - After creating a free account, students can use this service to keep track of the webpages to which they have "subscribed" (for free and very easily) using RSS technology. Teachers can "subscribe" to their students' blogs and easily keep track of who has posted new content.

Google Scholar – Returns only scholarly articles and books, tells you how many people have cited them, and links you to related articles - Allows you to create free quizzes, polls, and surveys that you can use on your blog, MySpace, etc.

Jumpcut - Allows you to edit digital video for free online. Great for students who don't have access to anything but the internet at home!

Keep Toolkit - A free, online project planning template that allows students to input images, text, and video into different "boxes" to create a shareable "project portfolio."

Media Convert - A free, slick little online tool that will let you identify a media file on your desktop or at a particular URL and convert it to the format of your choice simply by filling in a simple form. No registration required.

Meebo - Lets you manage chat/IM from multiple services all in one window. Also lets you create a customizable chat widget to add to your blog.

Meeting Wizard - A free, online tool that allows you to negotiate a date for an event, send out invitations, collect responses, and send reminders . . . all automatically!

Motivator - Create your own motivational posters for free with a digital photo and a few clicks. Download them, e-mail them, print them, or upload them to Flickr. You can also order print copies.

Pandora - Type in your favorite artists and Pandora will create "stations" of streaming music that is similar to the work of the artists you have selected, based on research from the Music Genome Project. You can create up to 100 stations for free (registration required)!

Picnik - Absolutely fabulous, free, easy-to-use, extremely functional, online image editing software. Lets you rotate, crop, color, or edit photos and will soon offer special effects. Interfaces very well with Flicker. (Still in beta)

Pikipimp - A free, online site that lets you upload pictures, add all sorts of accessories and speech bubbles to them, then save them. The site will generate a URL where the pictures can be viewed, as well as code for your webpage.

Protopage - Ever wonder what a Web 2.0 webpage will look like? Well, here's the answer! Register for free to get your own page, then customize the content by clicking on any of the tabs and altering their contents. Make as much as you like public or private. Like someone else's content? Simply click import and watch it all get added to your page!

Quickmaps - Allows you to pinpoint locations on a Google map, title and annotate the map, draw on the map, save all your annotations, and then generates a code you can embed into your blog or website to display the map.

Quintura - A very cool search engine that returns the results visually. Mouse over one of the tag words to see additional layers of results. See the new site for kids here:

Sabifoo - Connects the convenience of instant messaging with the power of RSS to create a variety of possibilities

Scrapblog - Combines the purposes and multimedia features of blogging with the visual affordances of scrapbooking. Comes with built-in templates and can accommodate music and video too

Scribd - Allows you to upload documents to share with others

Singshot - American Idol meets You Tube in a Web 2.0 sort of way . . . record and upload songs just like you might do with photos to Flickr. People can vote on them, etc. - Use premade themes to create slideshows from your photos that you can embed in your blog or website.

Snap - Gives you visual previews of the websites that appear in your search results.

Skype – Free software that allows you to talk to anyone in the world (up to 4 people at once) through your computer for free with a cheap headset mic (like the telemarketers wear) as long as the other person also has the software. Great for group conversations about projects. You can also call landlines or cell phones, but there is a charge for that

Swicki - Free software that allows you to create a search engine on your site that will evolve the results over time to better serve users based on their click patterns.

Swivel - Lets you explore, compare, and share data

The Amazing You Tube Tools Collection - A collection of tools to help those interested in using/publishing materials to You Tube.

Tubes - Allows users to drag and drop content (audio files, bookmarks, documents, e-mail contact lists, spreadsheets, videos) into a "tube" that can then be accessed by all those who have been invited to share it. Invitees can also upload content to the tube, making project collaboration easier. The latest versions of content in the tube synch up when the user is online. Click on the Download link to see a 30-second demo.

Webnote Wiki - Allows users to collaboratively take color-coded notes in a space they create and organize them graphically. People can subscribe to your RSS feed.

Websites as Graphs - Lets you visualize the content of a website (in terms of images, tables, text, etc.) graphically. Useful for evaluating websites in terms of content and design issues.

Wikispaces - Allows you to set up collaborative work spaces where multiple people can collaborate. Allows uploading of documents, files, images, and multimedia in addition to basic text, and includes discussion boards for every page, editing histories, revert options, RSS subscriptions, and the ability to review recent changes.

Yugma - Free Web 2.0 videoconferencing software. (Read more about Tim Lauer's experiences with it here: https://www.'